These states were named by the FCC as diverters for one or more years between 2008 and 2015, meaning they collected money from consumers for 911 systems but spent part of those funds on something else.
Sources: Federal Communications Commission annual reports to Congress
on state collection and distribution of 911 and enhanced 911 fees and charges, for the years 2008 to 2015; Collection and spending sums are from 2011 to 2015; Figures are sums of figures provided by states over that time period, but some states did not report to the FCC every year. Missouri, Oklahoma, Wisconsin and Wyoming never reported any collected fees. Scripps DC Bureau reporting.